Oct. 3 — Since 2013, FERC has exercised the enforcement authority it received following the 2000-01 Western Power Crisis to bring electric cases seeking fines and disgorgement of profits against alleged manipulators and other violators. FERC’s procedural process in electric enforcement cases is complicated but generally involves the agency issuing an administrative order assessing penalties, based on paper submissions rather than a trial-type proceeding, followed by a subsequent lawsuit in federal court.

— Utility Dive Commentary